A paper from Proceedings of the Third
International Science and Engineering Conference “Tore
Technologies”, 23 – 25 Nov., 2006, Irkutsk State Technical
University, Russia. – Irkutsk, 2007, pp. 109-131.
PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SELF-ACTING
In science, like in life, bright periods of
inspiration, elation, success and victory are invariably followed by
dark spells of paradoxes, stagnation, crisis, totalitarianism and
reaction. The above goes well with the words of R. Feinman saying, “If
you sink your teeth deeper into almost any of our physical theories you
will eventually get into some troublesome situation”.
When at the very dawn of aviation Samuel Langley was
asked, “Why do aviators fail?” the Professor answered, “Maybe, because
the man started from the end and tried to build flying machines before
he knew the laws on which all flying is based”.
Something like that happened in science:
pseudo-scientific theories based on erroneous interpretation of
theoretical phenomena were forced into science by totalitarian methods
and dominated in it, whereas other concepts running counter to them were
banished, treated as false, reactionary, etc. Just remember the
notorious directive of 1938 concerning works of Prof. N. Kasterin
(1869-1947) or heated discussions on inertia forces held in 1936-1937
and later on psychology, genetics, cybernetics, etc. The Inertia Vortex
Hydromechanics authored by Professor Alexander Milovich (1874-1958) 
had the same bad luck.
Having failed to get an insight into natural
mechanisms of basic physical phenomena, with any dissidence suppressed,
fundamental science of that time hampered development of new
technologies. New inventions were given development not thanks to
existing theoretical knowledge but often contrary to them, by fighting
with dogmatic concepts and institutions .
All the above-mentioned refers in the first place to
the nature of vortex formation and application of vortex motion energy.
The knowledge of real fundamentals of these processes helps better
understand the torus  and other technologies as well as physical
aspects of multiple seemingly mysterious natural phenomena.
1. Vortex Motion Energy
The issue of how great the resistance of a fluid
medium to solid substances moving therein may be is one of the oldest
Nevertheless, for a long time all attempts to find
its general theoretical solution failed.
Historically, two theories were proposed.
According to Newton’s theory of inertia (or “impact
theory”), the fluid medium resistance to solid bodies moving within may
be caused by the inertia of fluid particles as they run onto the body,
hence the resistance force should be proportional to the momentum of the
fluid mass running onto the body. However, all attempts to estimate the
value of this force were not successful since every time a calculated
force turned out to be half the actual value.
Supporters of the “friction” theory attribute the
fluid medium resistance primarily to friction of the body
surface against the fluid flowing about it and express such friction by
purely experimental formulas.
Yet, when introducing the “force of friction” term,
nobody provided a clear definition of the nature of this force and its
mechanical meaning. Meanwhile, the above force was already known to
differ fundamentally from the friction force of solids since the former
proved to be unaffected by pressure.
Beginning with Helmholtz, it was found that the
contact surface between a fluid flow and a static wall is always a
vortex surface. The fluid viscosity was thought to be the source of
The above provided the basis for development of an
interface layer theory.
Having applied his interface layer theory to an
aircraft wing, Prandtl saw that theoretically the force of resistance
was dramatically less than the one obtained from experiments and could
not explain appearance of the body profile resistance force or wing lift
Both theories had nothing to do with the reality.
As the aviation matured, times came when engineers
mocked all attempts of mechanical people to create analytical theories
in support of practice.
The first half of the 20th century was
marked by painstaking efforts of scientists to reconcile the classical
hydrodynamics theory with achievements of engineering practice in the
aviation field, which resulted in revision of basic principles of the
As a result, the revised mechanics ruled out the
necessity of dealing with ideal fluid as well as with inertia of its
particles. It was generally agreed that physical properties of a
fluid (primarily, viscosity) determine the basic motion pattern
that can be assessed only in the course of experiments .
The fluid mechanics turned into a tool for
mathematical processing of experimental data and issuing recommendations
on how to optimize needed experimental research having lost the
predictive capability of a physical theory.
Since the nature of the force that resisted the
motion of a body in liquid or gas was not cleared out, mechanics was
mislead by a wrong notion that viscosity of liquid was the only source
to produce vortices. With such theoretical assumptions dominating in
current technologies, no wonder nobody tried to make use of the vortex
From the above point of view, ideal fluid devoid of
viscosity cannot be a source of vortex generation, therefore such fluid
cannot interact with bodies it flows about, i.e. does not resist to
their motion in it.
But in that case it is hardly possible to understand
disappearance of the momentum force of fluid mass running onto the body,
which Newton thought to be the main cause of fluid medium resistance
because particles of even the most ideal fluid still remain material
It is obvious that the passive force of viscosity
always directed at destroying any relative motion of fluid particles
cannot be the main source of vortices, being, on the contrary, the only
reason for their attenuation.
As for the vortex generation effect, i.e. conversion
of forward motion of fluid particles to their axial rotation, which
actually stops longitudinal movement of this part of the fluid, such an
effect is made possible only if there is an obstacle to rectilinear
movement of particles by inertia.
The Obstacle Theory developed by Professor
Milovich which is based on operation of a system of sources or force
tubes activated in a body by a fluid flow running onto it, or on
alternative vortex layers invariably covering the side surface of any
body flown about by fluid irrespective of viscosity, provides answers to
all questions related to dynamic body and fluid interaction. Moreover,
the theory can correctly account for the fluid viscosity effect since a
viscous fluid moving along force tubes requires a greater pressure
difference at their ends, as compared to ideal fluid, given the same
fluid flow rate, i.e. viscosity increases the resistance strength of
a fluid medium.
“To complete the analysis of the new fluid medium
resistance theory fundamentals,” Prof. Milovich wrote, “we have to clear
them of the viscosity effect, show that they also hold true for ideal
fluid. The more so that the interface vortex layer theory based on
the viscosity effect in the sheerest fluid layer enveloping the whole
body surface is still adhered to. Obviously, the most objective solution
would be experimenting directly with ideal fluid.
According to the Institute of Physical Problems, such
a fluid is liquid helium possessing superfluidity. But operating on
liquid helium is not easy and can be done only at the Institute of
Physical Problems. Hopefully, they will be able to carry out such an
experiment for the sake of science.
In the meantime we may only provide proof ex
adverso (by contradiction).
If, based on the interface layer theory, we assume
the zero factor of fluid viscosity, then the interface layer effect will
cease to exist. According to this theory, vortices will not occur on the
surface of a body flown about. Flowing about will become potential and
there will be no interaction force generated between the body and the
fluid. However, should the fluid have no viscosity as an ideal fluid,
its particles at any rate will still have a mass and force of inertia.
The momentum of such fluid will remain a certain force regardless
of viscosity, and this force will not disappear together with viscosity,
as was shown by nobody else but Newton; therefore, if a body is flown
about even by most ideal fluid, we will invariably have their
interaction force, i.e. vortex generation and development.” .
The above assumptions were set forth by Professor
Milovich in 1930-1940ies.
In the last century sixties, American scientists
carried out experiments that showed appearance of vortex rings in liquid
helium at super-low temperatures, in a fluid almost fully devoid of
viscosity and friction .
“Undoubtedly”, A. Milovich wrote, “further
development of this theory will change the current views on phenomena
occurring in a liquid (or air) medium with solid bodies, such as
aircraft, ships, etc., moving through, which is sure to promote progress
in respective fields of engineering while the theory fundamentals will
give rise to further development of the science of fluid mechanics.”
The theories of sources, the dipole, dynamic
interaction of solids and fluid developed by Professor Milovich 
disclose causes of vortex generation, the nature and properties of
resistance forces making it possible to trace relations between them and
other natural forces known to us as well as to predict their effect
under unknown conditions. Notwithstanding the above, all Professor
Milovich’s attempts to find understanding and recognition of his
scientific ideas were not successful until his last days. And after his
death there was nobody to fight against pseudo-scientific views in
Thus, the science that opened prospects of using
vortex energy was rejected along with a potential of using accumulated
knowledge for the benefit of people.
2. Dipole as an Energy Carrier
What indeed has science lost by rejecting inertia
approaches to resistance forces and vortex generation processes?
It has long been known from classical hydrodynamics
that an isolated infinite straightforward vortex, like a finite closed
vortex, drives fluid to non-vortex motion having a speed potential.
This property of vortices though not properly checked
was also tacitly superimposed onto finite-length open vortices lying
with their ends on fluid boundaries .
From V. Thompson’s theorem it follows that if the
fluid motion had a non-vortex nature at its initial moment it should
remain as such all the time; and on the contrary, vortex motion never
changes its vortex nature.
To put it in another way, conservative forces of
nature are not able to change the initial behavior of fluid motion.
The above approach disregarded processes of
additional energy generation in these systems.
This inference, however, is not applicable to forces
that have no potential such as forces of interaction between a fluid and
solid bodies flown about by it that are of purely vortical nature .
A. Milovich corrected this error in his works:
“Wherever a fluid medium contains sources or
finite open vortices the full energy resource of the fluid medium
will vary in different points, and in the vicinity of such energy
dissipators the constant Bernoulli Equation will be a variable or there
will be no Bernoulli integral at all.
… A system of source points … has both kinematic and
dynamic meanings. As such, the system can introduce into a fluid medium
a certain new energy resource to be dissipated by sources present in
this medium. Therefore, we should treat the vortex source points of any
open vortex ends as source points of dissipation in the fluid of the
vortex energy additional to the fluid medium. Open finite vortices like
the system of source points act as extra energy dissipators”. .
We have already got used to and do not notice or pay
attention to the fact that our environment is filled with continuous
media such as air, light, electromagnetic fields, ether, etc. Therefore
we hardly ever think of what in fact characterizes existence and
interaction of bodies in a continuous medium. Given the continuity of a
large space confined by a medium, any objects (obstacles, bodies whose
properties are different from those of the medium) will be nothing but
points, i.e. incommensurably small items as compared to the space
occupied by the medium (compare a water drop and a pool, or the Sun and
the Galaxy). And due to the material nature of this medium and its
continuity (uniformly filled space) any exchange processes, processes of
interaction between bodies and the medium or between bodies themselves
cannot be of a local autonomous nature, in other words, in continuous
medium space there cannot be any isolated bodies that do not interact
with the medium. Due to the law of continuousness, bodies moving
in a continuum are always surrounded by ambient flows radially directed
towards them and acting as sources or sinks depending on medium and
object properties. Such a body may be, for instance, a rain-drop falling
into a pool or an inflated balloon rising in the air or a fish moving in
water, etc. Ambient flows initiated by these movements exert a dynamic
pressure in the direction of body motion. The dynamic pressure force
generated by the flow in the direction of its movement is equal to the
second momentum of the flow in that direction. Therefore, the theory
that describes interaction of flows with obstacles (bodies) or other
flows is at the same time a theory of force interaction (interaction
forces) and may help understand the nature of forces.
A point in a continuous medium that ejects or sucks
in this medium will be referred to as the source point.
A source point ejecting the medium from itself into
the outer space will be referred to as a positive source point. On the
contrary, a negative source point will be the one sucking the medium
For planar movement towards the source point, the
surface of the equal potential of velocities
is a circumference (r=const).
The flow rate of a planar source
having a unit width is defined as flow rate through the lateral area of
a right circular cylinder of a unit height:
is the flow rate of the medium through the lateral area which
constitutes the flow rate of the source q.
This flow rate Q
through the lateral area is referred to as the source intensity.
The sign of the intensity determines the source sign.
If the medium has multiple sources grouped into a
system, then the whole system of sources will have the
matter flow rate equal to the algebraic sum of all source flow
rates, such as:
Though formally meeting hydrodynamic equations, the
source point theory set forth here cannot yet reflect real natural
phenomena since it tacitly accepts a physically impossible effect -
full extermination or creation of matter from nothing in source points,
since it is clear that the source point might suck all the matter
from the environment into itself only in case all the matter in it could
disappear as a result of conversion to nothing. Or on the contrary, the
source point might continuously eject the matter from itself, provided
this matter could be continually generated in it from nothing. In
both cases we would invariably come to having the whole matter volume
increased or decreased in space, i.e. to its variability. Such change in
the initial volume of the medium is expressed by equation (2).
And since initial volumes of real media should remain
constant during their motion, to recover the reality of the source
theory an additional condition, besides the continuity equation, should
be met that expresses a non-variability or constancy condition of the
initial volume of the medium substance.
According to equation (2) this condition may be
represented by a below equation:
The algebraic sum of the multiple source intensities
should be zero:
and thereby the equation shows that in reality there
exists a system of at least two source points with intensities equal in
value but opposite in sign rather than one isolated source point system.
A point of continuous medium space that is a coincident point of two
source points with equal intensities but opposite signs is referred to
as a source pair or a dipole .
A vortex or a dipole is a dynamic material structure
integrating two extremes (polarities )- radiant and sink - continuous
ejection and suction of matter, which ensures circulation inside the
structure. It means that if from any point of a system filled with
medium, some amount of medium is extracted with a flow rate
q, the system
responds by accepting an extra quantity of medium equal to the
one extracted in any other point. That is, any external interaction
flow rate) does not leave the system unaffected but
generates a responsive counteraction (with -q
flow rate) to compensate for the changed
density inside the system. On the contrary, to extract a fraction of
medium with a flow rate q
from a closed system, a pressure drop is needed, i.e. it is necessary to
apply a force, perform work against the system response. Accordingly,
if the medium is partially extracted from a closed system
under external forces, then the inside pressure is lowered, and
should an open collector be additionally connected at any point of the
system, the external medium will rush into the system, i.e. the
collector will have a sucking capability providing a suction mode.
In the teaching of the ancient Consecrated this condition corresponds to
the “inhale”, passive state, darkness, In or female energy. On the
contrary, when medium is fed into the system from outside, a
higher pressure is generated inside, and if there is an additional
collector installed the excess medium will rush out through the
collector creating a pressure mode, corresponding to “exhale”,
active state, brightness, Yan or male energy.
Generally speaking, such a system is
self-oscillating. This property of the dipole generates and maintains
the process of permanent motion in nature.
Normally, a dipole, or vortex, is a dynamic
structure, a kinematic pattern of a fluid flow, as shown in Fig.1 .
This is a system of two sources having equivalent intensities (Q)
and opposite signs (radiant and sink), or of two oppositely directed
vortices. Due to this circumstance one side of the dipole (vortex)
ejects fluid (from side m) while the other side sucks it
in (from side n)
thereby providing a pressure drop that develops a driving power (Ð)
of the dipole (vortex, soliton or structures alike). The pressure force
P onto the ambient fluid is directed from point n to point
m increasing the pressure. The fluid medium in turn exerts pressure onto
the dipole with the equivalent force but in the opposite direction. And
if the dipole can move freely in the fluid, then the fluid medium
pressure will move it towards the XX
axis from point m
to point n
to decrease the pressure, The dipole will be somewhat “sucked by fluid
medium” like any body flown about by fluid.
Fig. 1 
To ensure reality of interaction processes in a
continuous medium, it is indispensable to have both a positive source
ejecting the medium (the radiant) and a negative source sucking the
ambient medium (the sink). Whereas the positive source (radiant) in the
medium is implemented easily by the flow reflection from the obstacle
(body), the negative source (sink) can hardly be implemented without
special techniques. One of the solutions may be found in nature. To meet
condition (3), we have to stop propagation of the medium (q=0)
towards the center of the source by directing the lateral area flow
Q transversely to
the source radius, i.e. at a tangent to the circumference converting it
to a flow rotating around the source axis thereby producing a vortex.
Professor Milovich proved the similarity between the
vortex theory and the theory of sources – the similarity between vortex
source intensities and source point intensities, and expanded the dipole
nature: the dipole is nothing else but a system of two infinitely
close parallel counter rotating vortices, or of two source points having
intensities equal in value but different in sign.
The dipole imparts a definite and finite momentum to
the medium along the axis of motion generated by the dipole.
Therefore, the dipole is a force or the center of energy radiated by it
into the ambient medium. Professor Milovich used to say that the latter
idea turned out to be so difficult for comprehension that even experts
in hydrodynamics were reluctant to trust it.
To eliminate all doubts in the full reality of the
dipole, a device was fabricated to simulate its activity .
To implement the key property of the dipole, that is
simultaneous suction and ejection of the same amount of fluid with equal
velocities, Professor Milovich made a loop-like channel
(Fig.2) with a square cross-section.
The sucking and ejecting ends
of this channel have a similar cross-sectional area
and are located inversely against each other in the same
horizontal plane in such a way as if their extension shown by dot lines
formed something like a straight-forward tube
To activate an air flow in this channel, a propeller
rotating round axis 00 is installed in its upper wider
part B. The whole channel is suspended on a
horizontal axis going through point 0' and normal to the
drawing plane. The channel
may freely rotate round this axis under the effect of a force developed
at the channel ends À
during the propeller operation, while the design eliminates the
influence of the propeller pulling force on this rotation. The force
P is measured by a weight G placed on a scale
The scale Å
is suspended at the end of channel
means of a thin wire running about a movable block D.
Fig. 2 
The key issue to be resolved by an experiment was
whether the force Ð
would appear that affected the ends of the channel
during the propeller operation with the air flow moving along the
channel since according to a common judgment based on a wrong
application of the Bernoulli’s equation, the pressure value at the
channel ends A and
where the velocity of the inlet and outlet flows is identical and equal
should be also identical and equal to
is the pressure of the fluid onto a surrounding container. From the
above expressions (a) it follows that
It may be inferred from the above judgment that the
propeller work moving the air flow along the channel completely
disappears and does not impart any additional energy to this flow. In
other words, according to this judgment the energy conservation law may
be cancelled and the energy converted to nothing. On the contrary,
knowing that the energy imparted to the fluid by the propeller work
never disappears completely we have to regard the pressure values at the
to be equal to
(since the fluid at this channel end is sucked into by the channel,
which is possible only if the pressure inside it lower than the pressure
of the ambient fluid medium) and, respectively, to
, i.e. greater that the
external pressure affecting the flow strength because otherwise the
fluid cannot flow out of the end C. But then the pressure
will be equal not to zero but to a double flow
strength, or r n
Therefore, the sought-for force
exerted on the ÀÂÑ
channel ends will be also not equal to zero
i.e. to the second momentum of the fluid flowing
along the channel.
According to Professor Milovich, an experiment
carried out using the above-described apparatus fully confirmed all
abstract theorems .
The fundamentals of inertia concepts of vortex
formation and dynamic interaction proposed by A. Milovich and rejected
by modern science show that:
- inflow/outflow of additional energy into/from the
medium in the presence of the system of sources or finite open vortices,
the dipole, is a real and fully legitimate phenomenon;
- concepts of hydrodynamics and related branches that
were predominant in the past and are prevailing now are based on
erroneous interpretation of facts, which is a pseudo-scientific
- unprejudiced analysis and review of the theoretical
concepts of fluid mechanics will help science to overcome the crisis.
3. Body inertia
If we try to separate all
nature directly perceived by us into its constituent parts, we will
identify two most general properties mutually inherent to each other:
matter and motion.
The core of classical physics is the law of matter
and energy conservation. Matter/energy can neither appear from nothing
nor disappear to nowhere without any reason. But the tendency to
simplification and unification in science left the issue of the
natural mechanism of the common conservation law unresolved. The
natural mechanism of perpetual motion of matter remained unrevealed
due to the same reason. Science has not progressed beyond the statement
that “matter keeps perpetual motion”, treating it as an axiom without
trying to understand the nature of the matter perpetual motion.
Aristotle and his followers considered force to be
the reason for motion. They believed a body will stop movement as soon
as it is no longer affected by force. Force is necessary for keeping
Newton understood that it was beyond his power to
give a direct answer to the principal philosophic question about the
mechanism of perpetual circulation, transformation and motion of matter,
so for the beginning he restricted his activity by only external
manifestations of matter motion and interaction. Newton enclosed the
internal nature of matter motion into a “black box” named “inherent
force of matter” and characterized all processes inside the “box” as
inertia, an attribute of the mass or matter confined to a body. The
causes of an external phenomenon of the impact on the body motion were
summarized by Newton in the form of “applied forces” that became
dominating in the classical mechanics.
According to the first Newton’s law any body,
until it remains insulated, saves its state of rest or rectilinear
Such a body is characterized as free and its motion is referred
to as free motion or inertial motion . Newton
attributed the free motion to the inherent force intrinsic in the
matter that provided the state of rest or rectilinear motion of a
body, not disclosing the nature of this force.
Newton’s followers entirely discarded forces needed
to maintain free motion and interpreted the first Newton’s law such that
no forces were needed to maintain the state of rest or uniform motion.
Force was thought to be the cause of momentum change only. But since
this change is produced by other bodies, the following definition of
force was accepted: force is a measure of bodies interaction intensity
manifested by their momentum change. That is, only “applied forces”
remained in the basics of mechanics. Using the approach that negated
free motion forces in nature a conclusion was made that, “strictly
speaking, free bodies do not exist. They are nothing else but physical
Finally, classical mechanics got rid of free motion
forces taking for granted a reference system wherein all free bodies
move in a rectilinear manner. This system is called an inertia reference
system. Such interpretation deprives the inertia law of its original
meaning reducing it to an assertion that instead of a real force
providing free motion of matter there is at least one inertial reference
system, i.e. its physico-mathematical abstraction.
The above approach cut off from reality had the
following consequences: in the long run, the reality of an interim
medium was sacrificed to eliminate contradictions and the concept of
“interaction by touch”, or of a contact to transfer a stimulus to a
remote distance, was rejected.
With applied forces predominant in physics, the
latter deals mainly with interactions that result in relocation of the
mass center, i.e. with situations wherein the mass center is relocated
under the effect of a force pulse.
But no less interesting is a case when the mass
center of a body is fixed and the process pertains to Newton’s first law
There are two states of fluid equilibrium or
quiescence to be distinguished: absolute and relative.
The fluid quiescent or equilibrium state is described
by the equilibrium equation
referred to as
the principal hydrostatic equation.
The above equation is used to solve all issues
related to research into the equilibrium of a fluid affected only by the
The mechanical interpretation of the principal
equilibrium equation in hydrostatics shows that any pressure
increment when a fluid particle moves from one point in space to
another is possible only if a certain amount of work of external
forces is performed. This work may be both positive and negative, i.e.
either external forces can be active or the fluid itself can output
work. The fluid turns out to be capable of work, possessing a certain
energy amount .
However, not any system of external forces is capable
of maintaining fluid equilibrium. Given equal temperatures in all points
of the fluid, the fluid equilibrium may be maintained only by forces
that have a potential. That is, keeping a quiescent state is possible
only in the presence of a conservative force field.
These provisions laid the basis for laws of
If a fluid is held in a container that moves in
space, then its particles besides being affected by the gravity force
acceleration will be also affected by the acceleration of fluid
particles movement together with the container. Under the effect of all
these forces the fluid will acquire a certain form of equilibrium
differing from the one when the container is motionless. Such a form of
fluid equilibrium is called relative equilibrium.
Professor Milovich attached special importance to
systems in the relative equilibrium state:
“Motion of a fluid particle like any material body
may be always separated into two principal components:
à) motion followed by
relocation of the particle’s center of gravity in space;
b) rotation of a particle as a solid body round its
gravity center remaining motionless in space (vortex motion).
Modern engineering can deal with and utilize the
energy of only the first type (a) of fluid motion
The energy of the second type fluid motion (b), or
the vortex motion energy is fully wasted energy.
The latter shows how important it is for engineers to
study this type of movements and their impact on the mode of its (fluid)
whole mass motion ”.
In other words, science treats open vortices as
energy dissipating structures only believing that additional energy of
closed vortices or flows is unlikely to be transferred to the external
environment without opening a vortex since it is generally agreed that
work of conservative field forces in a closed path is equal to zero. The
work of fields is fully compensated and there will be no energy
Is the issue of using vortex motion energy indeed so
4. Physics of Relative Equilibrium
Let us consider a case when the mass of fluid
uniformly rotating round its vertical axis is in equilibrium. Let a
cylindrical container (“Newton’s bucket”) (fig.1a) holding heavy fluid
density rotate uniformly at a constant angular velocity
round a fixed vertical up-directed axis 0Z. In this case
the fluid particles rotate round the axis at the same angular velocity.
Their circumferential velocities are proportional to the distance to the
For the fluid mass to keep equilibrium under such
conditions, acceleration of the centrifugal force trying to remove
fluid particles away from the rotation axis should be neutralized by
equal pressures eventually followed by pressure distribution
over the paraboloid of rotation round the axis 0Z
A body rotating round the axis passing through its
mass center, is in relative equilibrium regardless of whether the
rotation velocity changes or not. Such a body is called free and its
motion is referred to as free motion or inertia motion.
If the body rotates round the axis passing through
the mass center, then any line passing through the rotation axis has a
pair of forces - two parallel oppositely directed and modulo equal
momentum forces, impulses of tangential velocity of fluid particles. The
pair of the forces does not have a resultant force. In other words,
there is no force affecting the mass center of the rotating body, so it
should stay at rest, be motionless. Since the body does not have the
resultant force, the mass center does not move, therefore the work
equals zero, the kinetic energy of the body particles is not consumed.
The process of rotation round the axis passing through the mass center
is idle. The body rotating in this way can neither oppose to
outside impulses of applied kinetic energy nor consume this energy, it
can only increase the kinetic rotation energy of its particles by a
value of external action energy (the axis friction force is neglected).
This is a process of transformation of an unbalanced applied force
into kinetic energy of the body substance. Having no obstruction to
its motion the force impulse increases the living or inherent force of
the body substance, i.e. the body inertia. An ability of such a system
to accumulate rotation energy is used in a flywheel.
On the other hand, the potential of a fluid on the
free surface of the rotation paraboloid is a sum of works to overcome
the gravitation and the centrifugal force for the mass transfer during
rotation. As we noted, this is an idle process, so the work should be
zero. How can it go on under conditions of constant energy inflow?
When affected by the centrifugal inertia forces the
fluid particles move towards the wall away from the rotation axis. On
the wall (fig.3) backflow occurs, hence the initial fluid level
and pressure in the container rise by
Under the backflow influence compression stresses occur in the
fluid in that place. It is positive work.
On the contrary, the fluid particles moving under
their own momentum away from the rotation axis reduce the pressure and
their free surface near the axis, but the external atmosphere pressure
Po tends to increase it. As a result the level at the axis
drops against the initial fluid level
and tensile stresses occur near the rotation axis. It is negative
work. Figure 1b shows a diagram of fluid pressure change in a rotating
These pressure types are used in classical
thermodynamics and hydrostatics as a key parameter of an equilibrium
In the area between the wall and the axis a
standing wave is present.
A similar pressure distribution picture will also
take place when fluid is rotating in a lidded cylindrical container or
in separate radial pipes filled to the top with fluid. But the pressure
is balanced by the container walls rather than by the atmosphere
pressure; besides, it is not followed by the level change and displayed
in the form of stresses in the fluid.
5. A Self-Acting Hydraulic Turbine
The revealed stress distributions during rotation of
a body round the axis traversing its mass center make the flywheel
break, thus adversely affecting the body. But is it possible to use all
these facts to advantage?
The answer is ‘yes’ - by using the dipole as a force
The classic thermodynamics deals only with
equilibrium systems all portions of which have identical values of
thermodynamic parameters. Body rotation round the axis traversing the
mass center is characteristic of a non-equilibrium isochoric system
having a constant fluid volume. Under the effect of the centrifugal
force in the gravity field the volume is re-distributed in space
followed by pressure re-distribution. As a result, the system includes
two areas identified earlier that have opposite pressure change values.
A higher, excessive pressure exists near the container wall and it would
be safe to say that a hot source is at work here because any
pressure rise is always followed by heating. On the contrary, under
effect of centrifugal forces a lower pressure, or sucking in, is
maintained at the rotation axis, at this place a cold source is
active resulting in cooling down. The area between the axis and the
container wall contains two active interrelated sources located in
series and having different polarities. These are the ends of a finite
open vortex (the dipole) that make up a “free running” thermal engine
that can be started up by reverse circulation from the hot source
towards the cold source. Similar temperature stratifications during
rotational circulation of gas and liquid were observed by J. Ranque 
and Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) , and later by R. Hilsch, Yu.
Potapov , et al.
A temperature change in a system affected by pressure
changes is caused by respective phase transformations (condensation,
evaporation) in liquid.
Any physical structure has a high-density core
surrounded by a less dense atmospheric layer made of the same substance
the core is composed of . A layer of saturating vapor over liquid may
be taken as an example. But like any atmosphere that penetrates into
denser porous, crystalline or other structures (bodies), including
liquid, vapor is also present inside the liquid rather
than over its surface only. Voids (pores) in the liquid structure
are filled with its vapor whose molecules are coupled with liquid
molecules. This process of physical adsorption is similar to the
condensation process, and physical adsorption heat is similar to
condensation heat by its value. The physical adsorption heat is
about ten times less than the chemical adsorption heat.
The density and pressure of the saturating vapor at
constant temperatures are non-variable values that are different for
different liquids. Vapor always tends to maintain a constant
pressure and hence a constant vapor density. If the vapor density
changes under the influence of external factors (carrying away or
bringing vapor particles, for instance, by wind), then its pressure also
changes . The liquid coupled with vapor responds by trying to
recover the vapor density, ensure its constant pressure. Thus lowering
the pressure leads to evaporation followed by heat absorption, i.e.
cooling down, while pressure buildup is followed by condensation with
heat (energy) release, i.e. by heating. This re-confirms the well-known
statement that energy (heat) is matter and vice versa as well as the
inverse preposition – any thermal changes in vapor or liquid lead to
a change in vapor density (pressure) followed by appropriate phase
transformations in liquid.
A fluid is a two-component two-phase medium (liquid +
vapor) and phase transformations therein provide the main mechanism of
energy exchange in physical processes.
The second thermodynamics law means that heat
passes of itself from a hotter body to a colder body (in a mechanical
system a body falls down in the gravity field) without additional energy
application. Thermal engines operate based on such free heat
transition from a hot body to a cold one. On the contrary, heat cannot
pass of itself from a colder body to a hotter body; energy should be
spent for heat transfer (like for raising a body upwards). Usually, for
overcoming resistance between the sources in this direction a power
device (a pump) is used that needs additional energy.
The centrifugal force of inertia developed during the
body rotation round the axis is the force that provides formation of two
interrelated sources of the thermal engine with opposite polarities as
well as the fluid motion from the colder source to the hotter source to
meet the Second law of thermodynamics. The need for an additional power
device is hereby eliminated. The system being in a relatively
equilibrium state is an idle system that maintains conditions for the
thermal engine operation inside itself without applied energy
consumption; such a system is a self-sustained or self-acting
The only thing left to do is to switch our thermal
engine from the idle state to the operation state.
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
To start up the thermal engine, i.e. to ensure motion
from the hotter source to the colder one (Fig.4), pairwise located holes
are made in the side wall near the bottom of a closed (with a lid (5))
container (1) filled with liquid. Bent tubes with nozzles (2) directed
towards the side opposite to the rotation direction are connected to the
holes. A tube (3) is connected to a hole in the container bottom, which
hole is located on the axis aligned with the tube. This rotating
container is placed in a pot with liquid such that the tube (3) is
dipped into the liquid. The liquid from the lower container will be
sucked into the rotating container through the hole in the tube (3) on
the axis and the same amount will be ejected into the wall holes through
the bent tubes having nozzles (2). The liquid will start circulation.
The mass of the liquid rotating in the upper container will still remain
in the relative equilibrium. A device with similar properties that
simultaneously sucks and ejects the same amount of liquid is referred
to, as we know, a dipole.
An example of dipole implementation is an ordinary
siphon, a bent (∩-shaped) tube filled with water. In one segment
of the siphon tube liquid is sucked in and rises upwards, and if its
level in the second segment is lower (due to the higher pressure) than
in the sucking segment the falling liquid is ejected.
Instead of a rotating container filled with liquid a
turbine (Fig. 5) may be used made of siphon tubes (1) located pairwise
in symmetry with the axis. The ejecting segment of the siphon is bent
(2) at the end in the direction opposite to the rotation direction and
may or may not be provided with a nozzle. All sucking segments are
placed at the rotation axis or combined into a common tube (3)
concentric with the rotation axis. The pressure difference (hydraulic
drop) existing between the siphon ends,
caused by the centrifugal force makes the siphon work.
One of the advantages of such engines is their
continuous operation cycle.
Additional kinetic energy of liquid circulation is
utilized through the flow reaction force (R
horizont.) at the bent parts of
the turbine walls.
The reaction force that reflects the effect of a flowing jet on the
walls is equal to :
F is output hole
w is horizontal speed
of outflow from the hole;
H is liquid pressure
In case of liquid rotation:
The reaction force is used for creation of an
additional torque that enhances the existing system torque.
Maintaining a positive feedback ensures growth of liquid rotation rate
(energy), which in turn increases the circulation energy. The constant
energy (torque) growth obtained may be used, for instance, for rotation
of the generator or other operational units.
By a similar method Viktor Schauberger employed the
energy of additional liquid circulation in his water-driven implosion
machine as early as in the thirtieth last century for home illumination
and heating . Fig.6  shows an early drawing of the implosion
machine, and Fig.7  is a photograph of Viktor Schauberger near the
last operating model of his home implosion power generator in 1955.
Fig. 6  Fig. 7 
The described principles of using additional
circulation energy of the dipole within the idle process may be employed
in creation of similar electromagnetic and other self-acting devices.
Examples of successful technical implementation and
application of a dipole are provided by rapidly progressing,
multi-application and promising torus technologies making use of devices
with eversible tore shells [15,16].
There is a great number of natural processes
exhibiting additional circulation energy, e.g. transverse circulation
processes at river bends, processes of cyclone, whirlwind or typhoon
Inflow of additional energy into the ambient or
outflow from the ambient in the presence of dipoles, a system of sources
or finite open vortices is a real and fully legitimate phenomenon.
There are no principal difficulties in resolving the
issue of low-cost power supplies. The problem is solved by making use of
additional circulation energy within idle processes occurring in
interactive conservative fields of different nature.
Development and application of self-acting
self-oscillation processes is hampered by predominant pseudo-scientific
views and notions.
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