Article (revised and
updated) from collected materials of the 4th International Research
and Application Conference “Tore Technologies” held October 24, 2007
at the Irkutsk State Technical University, Russia, pp. 28-49.
(Translation from Russian)
DEVELOPMENT OF PERFECT ARCHITECTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
(BY THE EXAMPLE OF TORUS TECHNOLOGIES) TO ENSURE MANKIND SURVIVAL
UNDER CONDITIONS OF CLIMATE COOLING ON THE EARTH
The Forced Global Space
Emigration FundTM (FGSEFTM),
senseless without Man!!!
text was written “at a breath”, and as such may contain errors
though not fundamental, easily correctible and described with
respective comments in further works of the author”.
As a result of stream channel processes (quiet
backwaters, streamflow, meandering, etc.) occurring in mega-,
macro-, micro- and nanoworlds, the entire Universe consists of
nested elastic/soft spherical and/or torus-like
single-cavity/single-chamber, multicavity/multichamber shells or
their similar-name groups falling within four typical
information-wise and energy-wise self-supported forms of fluid
medium existence [1-3], namely (Fig.1):
(four “colors”) is a structure that consists of a
definite number of dodecahedrons or/and their variations contained
in a sphere-like shell with a finite and non-finite (the Universe)
radius. It should be noted that the four axes positioned at an angle
to one another make natural 4-dimensional tetrahedrical space, with
“four colors” being tetrahedron bases.
It is important that, given a non-finite sphere
radius, like the radius of the Universe, the Foam4 is not
confined to an enclosing shell; it is rather “free lying foam”.
That is, its bubble dodecahedrons (structural
spheres) or their variations are not effected by pressure from their
own centers, which is characteristic, for instance, of a soap bubble
or a football also formed by gas dodecahedrons or their variations
but more deformed (squeezed by pressure) in the direction from the
center towards the shell.
Therefore, elements of Foam4
constituting the infinite Universe have standard parameters (sizes,
distribution of pressure parameters inside dodecahedrons, thickness
of face “material”, Plato channel sizes, etc.).
Separation of the infinite radius sphere, i.e.
the Universe, into four infinite tetrahedrons with virtual bases –
“four colors” – is a purely information process (structurization
information) infinitely directed away from the center of the
Therefore, the force with which galaxies are
directed towards/pushed/sucked into dodecahedron vertexes (or Plato
channels) has the same integral value.
consists of a definite number of stretched dodecahedrons or/and
their variations rotating in the same direction respective their
longitudinal axes and confined to a sphere-like cylinder shell
consists of the following components:
“colors”, is a group of 7np
Shikhirin7 cells, where np – is a number of
the knot line rotations (the meridian) around the longitude of the
torus. The base edges of an individual cell rotate unidirectionally
respective their longitudinal axes.
consists of np (1, 2, 4, 5, 7 ... non multiples of 3)
interlinked threads (external) rolling each other and rotating
unidirectionally respective their longitudinal axes located in the
cross section on a concentric circumference. The central part of the
Bundle7 is a thread (internal) rotating around its
longitudinal axis (the torus axis) in the opposite direction
respective the external Bundle7 threads.
(Benard cells) is a layer
consisting of a group of VTortex structures concurrently rotating or
non-rotating respective their longitudinal axes. The surfaces of the
layer “consist” of implosive and explosive ends, respectively, while
the VTortex axes are oriented in one direction, for instance,
towards the center of the sphere (a meander with whirlwinds or
galaxies) or in parallel with respect to one another (a meander in a
water surface layer), and so on.
of dodecahedrons or their variations as well as of Shikhirin7
cells are Plato-Shikhirin4,7 channels. The low-pressure
dodecahedron vertexes generated by Plato channels (Plato’s diaphragm
or triangle or Shikhirin’s tetrahedron) attract dislocations
consisting of fluid medium in one of its typical forms of existence
or/and solid inclusions … etc.
Shikhirin7 cell vertexes, being low-pressure areas,
formed by edges, or Plato-Shikhirin72,3
channels (Shikhirin Arrowheads), dislocations made by liquid or/and
solid inclusions are also drawn into.
instance, at the megaworld level it means the infinite Universe
space filled with gas dodecahedrons or their variations (Foam4,
or quiescent state) changing into a Bundle4 (and back),
i.e. into a stream (flow) with meanders in which individual VTortex
galaxies or/and interacting VTortex galaxy groups (FoamVTortex
– Benard cells)
result of low pressure created in vertexes of dodecahedrons or/and
their variations, vertex areas draw in galaxies consisting of nq
Shikhirin7 cells, where q = 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, i.e. any
number non-multiple of 3.
vertexes of Shikhirin7 honeycomb-cell bases (Shikhirin
Arrowheads) low-pressure areas are also generated that draw stellar
mater (solar systems, etc.) in.
developed and mastered technologies of building optimum information-
and energy-wise self-supported shell systems of four types
converting to one another in a strict order under certain
conditions, namely: Foam4
FoamVTortex and vice versa.
Typical forms of working fluid medium existence in Nature.
process of planets and stars manufacturing
position) look at
Moreover, in a process (at a moment) of conversion from one state to
another (from one typical form to another) the information
constituent is missing (the information chaos), only structurization
energy is active; and on the contrary, when a typical form reaches
its self-supported state, the structurization energy only maintains
this process while the structurization information demonstrates
itself “in all its glory” and, as such, forms and supports various
function Pi numbers, the golden ratio, prime numbers and radicands
as well as information derivatives such as genetic code, molecule
should not Man make use of these natural technologies when entering
the space cooling phase characterized by cyclic changes of the
Earth’s axis tilt angles against the ecliptic plane, the Earth and
planets precession? After all, in this case Nature itself
automatically adjusts to these noticeable changes getting rid of all
those incapable of reformation and supporting capable ones!
role is to search, find and implement life-support systems (building
structures, clothes, power facilities, transportation means, food,
etc.) matched to conditions under which fluid medium exists in
Nature in its typical forms, e.g. by using typical bionic and other
forms both in changed and quite “new” Earth’s conditions taking into
or/and its elements
- attention should be paid to works of V. Shukhov, R.
Fuller, F. Otto, H. Hering, N. Foster, I. Hoshegawa and others among
which only R. Fuller took into account the principles of
4-dimensional space generation (“four colors”).
formation of spherical surfaces, a solidification technology may be
Torus or/and its elements - today only man-made element-wise polygonal
inflated torus has been suggested made of, e.g. 6, 8, 12 cylindrical
shells (parts) connected at respective angles. The design process is
based on primitive calculations of cylindrical shells serially
connected into an opened “angular” torus . After the open
“angular” torus has been produced it is possible to use a technology
of “torus” surface solidification.
soft and elastic structures of the Bundle4,
VTortex, its basic elements such as Foam7 and Bundle7
as well as FoamVTortex are so far unavailable at
all. However, structures built on these principles are the
best suited to sharp climatic changes in terms of energy and
environment safety (permanent energy and environment maintenance).
Moreover, such structures may be subject to smooth and low-cost
refurbishment should the living conditions suddenly deteriorate.
of the above, the author believes that under the Earth’s and
non-Earth’s conditions it is reasonable to use architectural and
construction technologies relating, on the one hand, to more
sophisticated spatial forms but, on the other hand, better suited
(adapted) to Man’s survival in the near future under the extreme
Earth’s conditions and on other planets not yet prepared for life.
Primarily, the matter concerns natural structures implemented as
Bundle4, VTortex and its Foam7 and Bundle7
basic elements, FoamVTortex as well as energy (free
energy) generated automatically during formation of such structures
with its subsequent total use .
paper is concerned so far with applications of torus technologies
and elastic mechanics in architecture and the construction industry,
primarily with multiple-use inflated torus formwork (ITF).
Fast Methods of
Construction Using Inflated Torus Formwork
Fast methods are considered to be advanced and
good only in case of good engineering preparation of the
construction process and properly trained personnel
multiuse inflated torus formwork was developed by the author’s
friend and colleague Larisa Borodina, a scientist and construction
expert who since 1992 has designed technologies for fast
construction of various purpose building structures based on torus
technologies in cooperation with the author .
first time in the practice of construction of buildings designed for
various purposes, particularly, in running model and environment
tests and operation of soft shells (inflated forms), L. Borodina
used her own designs of rubber-mercury sensors that after respective
thoriating (tuning) were built into the soft formwork material. This
fact, perhaps, pioneered introduction of elastic mechanics
principles  into construction engineering.
event of soft formwork deformation under the effect of static loads
(different parameters of pressure in the soft shell) or its dynamic
deformation caused by concrete mixture while the latter was sprayed
onto the form, rubber capillaries were deformed (stretched out)
together with the mercury therein that had its electrical parameters
changed, particularly, electric resistance .
author’s opinion, by the significance of her intellectual
contribution to torus technologies Larisa Borodina ranks the second
to “the father” of Torus technologies Ruvim Kozhevnikov (1924-1007).
fabrication and testing of various types of inflated torus framework
were performed by the author in 1998-2001.
with that, L. Borodina is an expert regularly consulting the author
on issues of cavitation process formation, e.g.:
origination from “nothing” and collapsing to “nothing” of “positive”
and “negative” cavitation bubbles, respectively, their functional
features and methods of fighting thereof;
electricity generation in waterfalls, etc.
Inflated Torus Formwork
Conventional (not torus-based) inflated formwork has a
serious disadvantage. Made for equivalent size sections, it does not
allow construction of vaulted buildings with various dome
pendentives and span lengths.
Moreover, due to narrow-mindedness of architects conventional
buildings do not possess bionic properties. On the contrary,
powerful anti-bionic effects are likely to be present that destroy
all living things.
inflated torus formwork and multiwave inflated torus formwork
(Fig.2) allow floors and ceilings of buildings having various span
lengths and pendentives to be concreted using the same formwork
Smooth (top left) and multiwave inflated torus formwork
thin soft torus shell (inflated torus formwork); 2 – tubular
supports; 3 – tubular anchors; 4 - thickened cable for eversion and
relocation of the torus into a new position; 5 – non-stretchable
soft-fabric collars; 6 – soft guiding hose; 7 – winch.
– 7 are not indicated on the smooth inflated torus formwork.
Inflated torus formwork (1) for erection of very long buildings by
fast methods is moved bay-to-bay in the protective long-length soft
hose (6) manually or with a winch (7).
shows options of using inflated torus formwork for concreting of
buildings in trenches (cut-and-fill), on the open surface, to ensure
Besides, inflated torus formwork (further “ITF”) has a significant
advantage of easy form removal without reducing excessive pressure
inside the form.
force is applied to the end of the ITF, the latter moves to a new
bay without any friction against the concrete surface of a vault
coming off the vault contour only to make a turn, which requires
just a slight effort. ITF is easy to cut out and fabricate using
conventional techniques (gluing, welding, etc.).
a simple design, a light weight and allows to erect the least
material-consuming vaulted buildings using a bend method, a spray-on
method or a combination thereof.
advantageous to use inflated torus formwork for making multilayer
(sandwich-type) structures of long objects where it is important not
to spend much time on formwork mounting and dismounting.
should be taken into account that for small structures (with less
than 6 m span length) such as residential house utilities, garages,
summer kitchens, pump and compressor shelters, etc., it is
reasonable to use smooth inflated torus forms, while for 12-36 m
long buildings multi-wave ITF are recommended since they are less
material-consuming and more robust, compared to smooth vaulted ones,
and as such may be used for construction of vegetable stores,
equipment houses, workshops, hangars.
large span length, the first shell made, for instance, of
glass-reinforced cement may be used as retained hard formwork.
Then pre-calculated main reinforcement is placed over it, and the
second, more robust construction layer, is formed by one of
industrial methods, e.g. the spray-on method. After that heat
insulation, protective screens, damp-proofing, etc. are established
by a similar method, and so on. The list of buildings that may be
constructed using ITF can be extended.
retain inflated torus formwork, we suggested that an inflated torus
made of rubber or otherwise be moved in a non-stretchable hose made
of soft fabric, film or leather, if smooth cylindrical surface
inside the building structure is needed.
vice versa, the protective hose can be made of stretchable fabric
while the inflated torus is made of fabric with accurately defined
stretchability to obtain shells of a multi-wave shape. The inflated
torus may be easily moved within the hose in a needed direction.
from the cylindrical shape, inflated torus formwork can be made as a
truncated cone to be used for concreting curved roofing elements of
small buildings, cottage attics, shelters and other constructions.
Introduction of ITF eliminates the need in precast structures and
cranes of large carrying capacity for construction technologies,
especially in remote areas.
should be noted that for buildings with span lengths exceeding 9 m a
critical factor is not so much the robustness of the “shell”
as ensuring its strength against permanent and temporary loads. To
ensure the vault strength either salient or buried stiffening ribs
should be set with a pre-determined pitch. For soft inflated
formwork there are two ways to make a form for stiffening ribs:
whole inflated torus formwork is made of elastic stretchable
airtight fabric with required working pressure. The fabric is
strapped across the ITF with non-stretchable fabric straps following
a pre-determined stiffening rib pitch (Fig. 2). In some instances
the fabric is strapped along the ITF to establish longitudinal
ITF is made, in which case the working medium (compressed air, foam
or water) is contained in the torus made of sheet rubber similar to
a football (e.g., 0.5 mm thick) or of elastic airtight fabric. The
torus is placed into a long (2.5 – 3 torus lengths) hose where it
will move by rolling in the direction or by the slope of the hose
orientation. The hose is made of strong non-hermetic fabric with
adhesion properties such as nylon impregnated against concrete
sticking and performs the ITF force function, namely, prevents the
torus inflation to go beyond design sizes.
operates as follows:
hose is put on a prepared support base along the axis of a building
structure. Inside the hose there is a soft elastic torus capable of
moving (rolling) without friction in a desired direction from one
concreting bay to another by means of a cable using a method of
concrete spraying onto ITF and a concrete type of needed stripping
strength. A continuous concrete placement mode is ensured by
proper choice of the torus length such that while a concrete portion
is cured in its middle part, concrete spray on the remaining length
may be continued after the end part of the torus has rolled over to
a newly formed bay. This is done without reducing the speeds of
concrete placement and construction.
shows a combined method of construction of long buildings when a
wall carcass of reinforced concrete columns is erected on a precast
foundation prior to construction of the vaulted part of the
building. The supports for the vault between the columns are ensured
by vault thickening immediately near the torus floats fixed on the
Concrete is sprayed onto the vault after or before the walls are
erected between the columns dependent on a column pitch.
should be noted that given a large height of columns supporting
light-weight floors and ceilings without crane loads, it is possible
to use hollow reinforced concrete pipes or fiber-concrete pipes the
roots of which are embedded into the base and concreted (like
a Cobi pile ) by means of pneumatic concreting. Hollow pipes may be
fabricated with a rotor technology directly at the construction site
by means of shotcreting, and augmented section-by-section to a
required height using inflated toruses  with subsequent grouting
(if required) directly at the erection place (Fig. 3).
Tire-wise column concreting with the use of ITF.
second, third, fourth – concreting tires)
the ITF, it is possible to complete pre-construction works in a
shorter time including zero cycle facilities laying. The ITF makes
it possible to concrete 0.5 – 3 m diameter pipes for gulleys,
heating mains, sewerage, irrigation systems and compensate the
shortage of metal or reinforced concrete pipes or eliminate them at
case one can do without pipe joint packing, transportation vehicles
and cargo handling facilities. With ITF and fixtures these pipes may
acquire any cross-section shape to reduce hydraulic resistance of
water and increase their throughput.
makes it possible to implement adapters and bends of concrete
pipelines easily and effectively by following the guides (formwork
slope or bend supports) running through the formwork.
toroid; 2 – lean-to elements; tubular supports
shows a smooth ITF  in which tubular supports are entered into
its central part (torus) with their subsequent, for instance,
parallel separation to obtain required span length and arch rise.
move the supports apart from one another and fix the ITF to the
base, then on such a framework we can harden the roofing (shell) in
the form of a truncated cone of a variable span length and the apex
height along the longitudinal axis of the building.
non-supported inflated torus form has a shape of a long cylinder and
possesses exceptional properties distinguishing it from other
formwork types. Reduced at the top by the shell, the ITF, when
inflated, is easily everted without friction against the shell and
thus can be saved for future use, which makes it cost-efficient in
evert the ITF, it is sufficient to apply an external force to the
eversible ITF end parallel to the torus axis.
simplest eversion facility is a rope thickened at one end. Depending
on the ITF diameter size, the elastic toroid is everted manually or
with a winch.
Secondly, the elastic toroid is easily bent in space in all three
directions and retains an obtained configuration without any
supports (by means of friction in bend places). By using this
feature it is possible to leave channels of various configurations
in monolithic concrete for running utilities or leave voids for
future anchors .
hollow ITF is prevented from floating up in concrete by internal and
external holders. A utilities duct, etc., may be placed inside
below are some examples of using a single inflated torus for
erection of buildings with different span lengths and pendentives,
see Fig. 5: top left – covering an open subway line; bottom left – a
structure erected in a cut-and-fill ;
crossing water obstacles during a construction period;
bridges over small rivers and creeks by carrying construction
materials through a pipe (pipes) laid in the torus cavity.
the right view, is a cross-section of a gully over which an arch
bridge is built by using an inflated torus to let transport vehicles
through. Construction of conventional wave protection stone-fill
dams is widely used in hydroengineering building practice.
in this case torus structures can be also used to simplify and, what
is more important, speed up dam filling work.
Examples of using a single inflated torus for construction of
building structures with different span lengths and pendentives.
inflated torus, 2 – tubular supports, a pipe for water flowing (a
Technology Methods for Construction of Hydroengineering and
shown above, the use of inflated torus formwork makes it possible to
erect various purpose land building structures quickly and with good
quality, particularly in areas remote from big construction industry
centers. Tools used for spraying a hardening mixture onto ITF are
well known to builders. Using ITF, a single spray-on
methodology may be used for implementation of not only a
load-carrying shell but also to make dampproofing, protective
screens, heaters in the form of, e.g. asphalt foam or urethane foam,
dyes of any color, etc. Apart from industrial and civil engineering,
ITF may be successfully used in military and civil hydraulic
engineering (under field, restrictive and extreme conditions).
Torus Protective Dam
inflated torus may be successfully used as a dike to protect the
offshore strip from wind onset or heavy sea.
shows an axonometric view of a soft elastic airtight shell . The
shell is made as a cylindrical torus secured to the dam apron with a
single pipe tucked into the inflated torus; the pipe uniformly
clamps the inflated torus to the apron by clamping elements without
affecting its integrity. This supporting pipe is secured only to the
abutments and does not move. The other two dam supporting pipes are
moveable to provide a required height and shape for the dam.
Torus protective dam: 1 – the torus; 2 – supporting pipes.
is a cross-section of this dam in different application positions.
has an elastic shell 1 shaped as a toroidal cylinder located across
the channel between the abutments.
cylindrical torus is made somewhat longer than the distance between
the abutments such that the shell is hermetically sealed at its ends
by a tight contact between the shell and the abutments when it is
filled with working medium. Through the internal through-hole of the
shell, i.e. the central part of the torus, at least three (3) rod
drives are passed working primarily in the horizontal and vertical
drive is selected dependent on particular conditions and may be a
rack-and-pinion drive. The shell is connected with a pipeline for
feeding working medium, e.g. air, and a heat sink pipeline, both
interconnected with the working medium source. The dam body is
placed on the foundation, hermetic sealing over which is ensured by
fixed securing of the left part of the horizontal drive and by
pressing its shell to the foundation.
is operated as follows:
dam gets filled with working medium and the drives are moved, the
cross section and the height of the dam change.
dam may be used as a flow controller in channels, as a water
elevation dam, as a protective breakwater dam, given proper
calculation and selection of needed cross-section shape as well as
placement of bubble-pipes on the apron.
future it might be possible to discuss an issue of including an
inflated torus dam into a complex of structures for conversion of
wave energy to reciprocal movement with larger area of contact with
inflated torus dam can protect a water area against waves of
pre-calculated height in storm weather and let ships into the water
area when there are no waves by driving the dam into a non-operation
of inflated toruses may be used to establish anti-wave protection by
securing holders in the form of pipes and cables directly to the
water area bottom by means of special anchors. Compressed air (or
water under excess pressure) fed into torus shells forces soft
protective elements of the torus structure to lift to a needed
height at the beginning of a storm thus ensuring protection from the
water area waves or making them deviate in a required direction. In
such events cylindrical torus shells are second to none among known
soft dams and soft fabric obstructions.
dams may be used for water head accumulation in order to create,
when needed, a wave that sweeps away everything in its way in the
tail bay and floods low areas.
Torus Elevation and Lockage Facilities
inflated torus may be used as an elevation device to lift tall
open-work constructions such as built-up towers and alike 
Fig. 7 Torus elevation
inflated torus; 2 - telescopic sections; 3 – a container elevated by
the torus; 4 – a guide post with toruses (1) “beaded” thereon.
cableway crane with “a balloon” made of a pack of inflated toruses
filled with light gas allows round-the-clock dam filling making use,
if required, of stationary nets instead of containers that transform
small stones into a filtering mass. The latter is dumped onto the
dam from the cableway crane by the end-dumping method and withstands
being washed away by waves at least throughout the construction
period until a protection ordered-mass layer is deposited.
solution makes it possible to eliminate motor transport consuming a
lot of fuel and failing because of wheel rubber wear and tear on the
dam stone fill.
solution is suited for construction of trench-type structures when
rock matter is used directly to fill a protection dam rather than be
absence of rock matter for making a dam it is worth while to
consider soft guard options for the water area and combined guard
options for particular construction conditions.
To feed cargo to an air-support structure the following
facilities are suggested (Fig. 8). The toroid is hermetically placed
at the media boundary. When the toroid is everted, the central body
(cargo) movement velocity is twice is fast as that of the toroid,
the cargo is “ejected” and the toroid is automatically brought to
the original state.
Fig. 8 A
facility for cargo delivery to an air-support structure.
À. Loading the facility for feeding separate
Â. Feeding bulk cargo into an air-support structure
through a funnel.
Ñ. Feeding cargo through a cone-shaped toroid
automatically going back to the original position for the next cargo
Inflated torus formwork should be used in combination with other
torus machines and mechanisms united with ITF by common principles
of development, operation and repair.
machines and mechanisms include a variety of torus transport
vehicles, elevators, air-operated hammers, pile-driving hammers,
pipeline transport, containers, furniture and alike [7, 17-19].
A press for making complex-shaped items from billets.
A system for heating (cooling) concrete hoses at low (high)
temperature. A twin wall of a toroid with fluid medium of a needed
temperature provides vacuum-flask conditions for the concrete hose
placed in the central part of the toroid.
A system of hose-and-torus channels with heating (cooling) to
withdraw viscous-liquid drains from an accumulating tank to a
sediment collector. Toroids are used as a non-clog control valve
while the passing liquid is withdrawn to sediment collectors.
Gates, dock building gates. A property of the elastic shell
is used that allows the shell to straighten up in the direction away
from its anchoring place when excessive pressure is created inside
Subwater pipeline laying facilities.
Water transfer pumps, compressors. A toroid having a cavity
filled with gas or liquid under overpressure is not limited by
geometries, while replacement of sliding friction by rolling
friction in the cylinder-piston pair allows fabrication of
high-throughput pumps for water and other liquids transfers.
Hose-and-torus filters of various purification grades. When
the inner pressure of the toroid rises, the toroid tightly embraces
the central body represented by a soft porous filter with a large
dirt holding capacity. This feature of the toroid prevents dirty
water leakage at the interface between the filter and the torus. To
rinse the filter, the toroid makes back-and-forward movements with
simultaneous pressure rises and drops in its cavity thereby
squeezing dirt out followed by rinsing in clean water.
Technical facilities and systems for protection of capital
structures against impact loads. Special torus shock absorbers to
protect permanent structures, various equipment, special-purpose
objects (electrical systems, control and communications facilities,
heating, illumination, fire-protection, sanitary and life-support
systems) and personnel against technogenic (military) or seismic
Anti-vibration facilities for permanent structures. Toroids
as basic vibration-isolation elements used for vibroprotection of
equipment from kinematic effects of load-carrying and internal
structures the equipment is placed on, as well as for acoustic
should be noted that promising results of using torus technologies
were obtained in the course of the author’s cooperation with
architect Dmitri Kozlov, an expert in theory and practice, in the
architectural bionics field. This work is concerned with using
closed long resilient non-stretchable rods originally carrying
flexural energy (loaded with flexural energy) [20-23]
(Moscow-Zelenograd, Russia) for fabrication of:
reinforcing layers of toroidal shell material (Fig.9);
support and/or ancillary structures allowing a toroidal shell that
does not contain fluid medium under overpressure to move by
eversion. This principle may be used in next generations of toroidal
drivers of transport vehicles.
structures eliminating use of fluid medium at all, etc.
Self-formation of a bulk frame from a flat structure
fast construction methods in combination with torus technologies for
construction of land-surface buildings for various purposes makes it
possible to reduce construction time from 15-22 years to 4-6 years,
service life of a structure without overhaul for 50-70 years is
provided by specially selected curing materials instead of Portland
cement-based concretes that are not destroyed at low
temperatures (-52oC and lower), characterized by
high waterproofness (>30) and withstand loads of at least 800 kg/cm2.
In the Far North areas it is advisable to use slag-alkaline
concretes, polymer concretes and other types which improve their
original physical and mechanical properties under, for instance,
Residential and working buildings may have a monolithic construction
based on quick-setting robust and waterproof materials such as
gypsum-lime-slag cement (GLSC) creating comfortable conditions for
living and work as compared to concrete and reinforced concrete
concrete increases formwork turnover 20 times as compared to plain
concrete, hardens quickly without energy consumption for steaming,
warming up, etc. The waterproofness of the GLSC is ensured by simple
Suggested fast construction methods using ITF allow, in principle,
construction of building structures, using the space under the vault
of the building and materials of the vault and the foundation; such
building structures may include protection screens built by the
spray-on method or by setting sheet screens. These methods may be
also used for air space protection and diversion of subsoil waters
away from the housing and ensure protection against harmful space
Moreover, if needed, during the 50-70-year period additional
protection measures can be taken by spraying radiation screen
materials onto the building with a special-purpose robot handler
(without human participation). The sandwich structure of buildings
provides, if needed, higher robustness of the construction by
setting additional reinforcement (for instance, in a form of a flat
framework) in edges with subsequent shotcreting.
preparation period of construction using torus technologies it is
important to perform training of construction workers who will deal
with ITF, test equipment and spray-on systems.
attention should paid to uninterruptible power delivery to the
construction site during work with inflated forms. Measures should
be taken to provide power to inflated formwork in emergency
situations (use of a back-up motor, etc.).
Mastering new fast construction methods using soft ITF can take less
time by involving specialists engaged in developments of
long-lasting non-destructible fiber glass to be used in different
advisable to fabricate inflated torus formwork at a plant that
employs a modern technology of fabric gluing and required equipment
for this purpose. This will make the fabrication cheaper and
ensure high quality.
into account the fast turnover of the inflated torus formwork, it is
sufficient to have two ITF’s 20-30 m in diameter.
laying facility ducts as well as gulleys, drains, sewerage pipes and
indents in monolithic concrete, small-diameter and long-length ITF
should be used as blockouts in monolithic concrete. Made of special
concretes in a jointless monolith, they help to avoid running costs
for replacement of pipe sections or elimination of leaks through
joints. Torus blockouts are easily fixed, easily laid with a needed
slope and bend in both vertical and horizontal planes and save labor
costs in construction of the zero cycle of the construction site,
being in fact “small-scale mechanization” facilities for formwork
jobs at a building under construction.
ITF designed for one-time use may be successfully employed to
provide shelter for planes and helicopters as well as for other
bulky vehicles against snowdrifts and bad weather.
cost efficiency means that they are indispensable for construction
of the cheapest cold shelters that have a long lifetime and are
quick to erect.
structures have a wide range of applications at the construction
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